Typical male, typical female – the way we think is still very much influenced by clichés and gender stereotypes. What is fact? What is fiction? Are there typical male and female brains, as is so often claimed? Men supposedly have a better sense of direction than women – they have to prove this in our labyrinth experiment. But some differences cannot be denied. Recent studies show that certain illnesses manifest themselves differently in men and women. And yet medicine rarely makes any gender-specific distinctions when it comes to treatment – often with fatal consequences. Harald Lesch navigates his way through the maze of myths and prejudices and reveals some of the facts about the differences between the sexes.